The following theories offer different accounts of what should be equalized in the economic sphere. We need to know the dimensions within which the striving for equality is morally relevant.
Different interpretations of the role of equality in a theory of justice emerge according to which of the four following principles and which measure has been adopted.
Some authors see this formal principle of equality as a specific application of a rule of rationality: Equality and efficiency need to be placed in a balanced relation.
He says some people think homosexuals are shameless, but he thinks they are the bravest, most manly of all, as evidenced by the fact that only they grow up to be politicians aand that many heterosexuals are adulterous and unfaithful e.
Love has attributes from both parents, he is beggarly, harsh and a master of artifice and deception d and is delicately balanced and resourceful c. He also implies that love creates justice, moderation, courage, and wisdom.
In contrast, unjustified inequalities based on different innate provisions and gifts as well as brute luck should be compensated for through a fictive differentiated insurance system: The equality Socrates wants is a radical equality, where there is neither a male nor a female, but only warrior.
Apollodorus was not himself at the banquet, but he heard the story from Aristodemus, a man who was there. As spherical creatures who wheeled around like clowns doing cartwheels athese original people were very powerful.
This is now the widely held conception of substantive, universal, moral equality. In thinking about the benefit to the city, Socrates realizes that having women participate in all of the classes that men are part of will be very positive. And this is tied in a basic way to the question of what we owe persons in comparable or worse situations, and how we need to invest our scarce resources money, goods, time, energy in light of the sum total of our obligations.
Rather, we find competing philosophical conceptions of equal treatment serving as interpretations of moral equality. Alcibiades states that when he hears Socrates speak, he feels overwhelmed. Firstly we should make clear that at no point does Plato deny that there are differences between the two sexes - his ideas on equality lie solely in the nature of humans.
According to her, Eros is not a god, but is a spirit that mediates between humans and their objects of desire. The wealth of those better off only furnishes a means that has to be transferred for the sake of mitigating the distress, as long as other, morally negative consequences do not emerge in the process.
Numerical equality is only just under special circumstances, viz. This would have to be an acceptable approach according to the intrinsic concept. Gender and sex, of course, forever tie us in knots.
Temkin has put it as follows: Plato recognised that women had something to offer the state, and although the scenario in the Republic was predominantly unrealistic, the very fact that he considered a new role for women implied he was prepared for change.
This masculine prejudice manifested itself most potently in Plato. As pure egalitarians, they are concerned solely with equality, most of them with equality of social circumstances, according to which it is intrinsically bad if some people are worse off than others through no fault of their own.
The one gender is far superior to the other in just about every sphere. Aristotle's views on women influenced later Western thinkers, as well as Islamic thinkers, Plato firmly believed in reincarnation and this was very important for the distinction he made between the nature of men and women.
This was not the case for Aristotle, who saw the differences as biological. Socrates cannot expect men and women to be wholeheartedly equal, and at the same time still be attracted to each other enough to procreate.
While Socrates is clearly supporting the notion of gender equality, there seems to be an ulterior motive behind his encouragement. This was a familiar argument for a nineteenth century women’s rights activist to hear, and Howe recognizes it as “the first serious objection likely to be argued” by those opposed to women’s equality anywhere.
2 She then demonstrates how Socrates argues that “the intellectual capacities of women are as various as those of men, and. Republic V contains two revolutionary proposals for the social organisation of the ideal state, the first that the function of guardianship is to be performed by men and women alike (cb), the second that for the guardians the private household and therefore the institution of marriage is to be abolished (bd), since the guardians do not own property and the care of children is to be a communal.
For now, however, our thoughts will concentrate on Plato and what he really thought of women and their capabilities. Firstly we should make clear that at no point does Plato deny that there are differences between the two sexes - his ideas on equality lie solely in the nature of humans.
The history of the movement for gender equality is therefore an intellectual, political, social and economic history of the changing relationship between men and women, rather than how it is often distortedly represented as a ‘pro-woman’ movement.A discussion of socrates thoughts on equality between men and women